Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom

A Guide to Current Ideas About the Theory and Practice of English Language Teaching

by: Tricia Hedge

Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom
Author: Tricia Hedge

Publisher: Oxford University Press

Series: Oxford Handbooks for Language Teachers

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Format: Paperback / softback

Publication date: 13 January 2000

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ISBN: 0194421724 ISBN 13: 9780194421720

Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom by Tricia Hedge

Meant for teachers wishing to develop and explore their teaching, this is a handbook that aims to develop insights into issues, problems, and possibilities in ELT methodology. It is also useful as a general reference for the classroom teacher. It contains illustrations, examples, follow-up activities, and recommended reading. Top page

Complete description

This is a comprehensive handbook for teachers wishing to develop and explore their teaching. It involves teachers in their own professional development and aims to develop insights into issues, problems, and possibilities in ELT methodology. It is also useful as a general reference for the classroom teacher. Each chapter is illustrated with examples from course materials and includes follow-up activities and recommended reading. Top page

General info

Publisher & Imprint: Oxford University Press

City: Oxford

Pages: 464

More info: height 246 mm width 165 mm weight 684 gr thickness 26 mm

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Age recommended: ELT/ESL

Subject Indexing & Classification Dewey:(DC21) 420.71

Departments: Elt background & reference material;

Record updated at: 23 September, 2014 time: 18:47

Summary Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom Acknowledgements ; Introduction ; PART ONE: A FRAMEWORK FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING ; 1. Learners and learning, classrooms and contexts ; 1.1 Introduction: issues for the language teacher ; 1.2 What do we know about how languages are learned? ; 1.2.1 The nature of input ; 1.2.2 The process of intake ; 1.2.3 The role of interaction in the classroom ; 1.2.4 The role of error ; 1.3 How do differences among learners affect learning processes and teaching procedures? ; 1.3.1 Aptitude ; 1.3.2 Learning style and learning strategies ; 1.3.3 Affective factors ; 1.3.4 Motivation for learning English ; 1.4 What factors of context should teachers take into account? ; 1.5 What roles can teachers and learners play in the learning process? ; 1.5.1 The teacher's roles and responsibilities ; 1.5.2 The learner's roles and responsibilities ; 1.6 What roles can learning materials play? ; 1.7 Conclusion ; Discussion topics and projects ; Further reading ; 2. The communicative classroom ; 2.1 Introduction: the concept of communicative language ability ; 2.2 What are the components of communicative language ability? ; 2.2.1 Linguistic competence ; 2.2.2 Pragmatic competence ; 2.2.3 Discourse competence ; 2.2.4 Strategic competence ; 2.2.5 Fluency ; 2.3 What are the issues for the communicative curriculum? ; 2.4 What are the implications for the communicative classroom? ; 2.4.1 What are communicative tasks and what are their roles in teaching and learning? ; 2.4.2 How can we manage a communicative classroom? ; 2.4.3 What does communicative language teaching imply for authenticity in the classroom? ; 2.5 What are the issues in applying a communicative approach in context? ; 2.6 Conclusion ; Discussion topics and projects ; Further reading ; 3. Learner autonomy and learner training ; 3.1 Introduction: the self-directed learner ; 3.2 What do we know about the strategies of the 'good language learner'? ; 3.2.1 Types of learner strategy ; 3.2.2 Research into learner strategies ; 3.3 What insights can we gain from educational thinking on autonomous learning? ; 3.4 What are the implications for learner training in the classroom? ; 3.4.1 Activities which help learners to reflect on learning ; 3.4.2 Activities which train strategies and equip learners to be active ; 3.4.3 Activities which encourage learners to monitor and check their own progress ; 3.5 What role can self-access facilities play in language learning? ; 3.6 Are learner autonomy and learner training universally appropriate concepts? ; 3.7 Conclusion ; Discussion topics and projects ; Further reading ; PART TWO: TEACHING THE LANGUAGE SYSTEM ; 4. Vocabulary ; 4.1 Introduction: the task of learning vocabulary ; 4.2 What do we know about the lexical system of English? ; 4.2.1 Denotative and connotative meaning ; 4.2.2 Meaning relations among words ; 4.3 How do second language learners acquire vocabulary? ; 4.3.1 Strategies for vocabulary learning ; 4.3.2 Factors affecting vocabulary acquisition ; 4.4 What are the implications for the teaching of vocabulary? ; 4.4.1 Developing a variety of techniques for the teaching of meaning ; 4.4.2 Encouraging the development of effective strategies ; 4.4.3 Exposing learners to vocabulary through reading and training lexical inferencing ; 4.4.4 Teaching the effective use of dictionaries ; 4.4.5 Evaluating the vocabulary component of coursebooks ; 4.4.6 Teaching vocabulary explicitly through a range of activity types ; 4.4.7 Developing resources for vocabulary teaching ; 4.5 Conclusion ; Discussion topics and projects ; Further reading ; 5. Grammar ; 5.1 Introduction: the role of grammar in English language teaching ; 5.2 What do we know about the learning of grammar? ; 5.2.1 Noticing ; 5.2.2 Reasoning and hypothesizing ; 5.2.3 Structuring and restructuring ; 5.2.4 Automatizing ; 5.3 What information can help us in the selection and presentation of grammar? ; 5.3.1 Grammar as meaning ; 5.3.2 Grammar in discourse ; 5.3.3 Grammar and style ; 5.4 What principles can guide us in the teaching of grammar? ; 5.4.1 Presenting grammar ; 5.4.2 Practising grammar ; 5.4.3 How can we design the grammar component of a course? ; 5.4.4 How can we suit approach to learner needs? ; 5.5 Conclusion ; Discussion topics and projects ; Further reading ; PART THREE: DEVELOPING THE LANGUAGE SKILLS ; 6. Reading ; 6.1 Introduction: making sense of a text ; 6.2 What do we know about the process of second language reading? ; 6.2.1 In what ways is reading an interactive process? ; 6.2.2 In what ways is reading a purposeful process? ; 6.2.3 In what ways is reading a critical process? ; 6.2.4 What is the role of extensive reading? ; 6.3 What are the implications for the teaching of reading? ; 6.3.1 How do we establish goals for the reading classroom? ; 6.3.2 What criteria do we use to select reading texts? ; 6.3.3 What kinds of tasks help to develop reading ability? ; 6.3.4 Can we help students to read critically? ; 6.3.5 How can we encourage extensive reading? ; 6.4 Conclusion ; Discussion topics and projects ; Further reading ; 7. Listening ; 7.1 Introduction: the role of listening in the ELT curriculum ; 7.2 What do we know about the listening process? ; 7.2.1 Bottom-up processes in listening ; 7.2.2 Top-down processes in listening ; 7.2.3 Purposes for listening ; 7.3 What 'uncertainties' exist for foreign language listeners? ; 7.3.1 Uncertainties of condence ; 7.3.2 Uncertainties deriving from the presentation of speech ; 7.3.3 Uncertainties because of gaps in the message ; 7.3.4 Uncertain strategies ; 7.3.5 Uncertainties of language ; 7.3.6 Uncertainties of content ; 7.3.7 Visual uncertainties ; 7.4 What are the implications for the English language classroom? ; 7.4.1 Creating reasons for listening ; 7.4.2 Selecting texts for listening ; 7.4.3 Designing listening activities for the classroom ; 7.4.4 Building condence in listening to English ; 7.5 Conclusion ; Discussion topics and projects ; Further reading ; 8. Speaking ; 8.1 Introduction: skills and strategies in speaking English ; 8.2 What is involved in speaking English competently? ; 8.2.1 Distinguishing types of speaking situation ; 8.2.2 Making oneself understood ; 8.2.3 Managing interaction ; 8.3 What are the issues in teaching the phonological aspects of English? ; 8.3.1 Choosing a model for pronunciation teaching ; 8.3.2 Taking a holistic or atomistic approach ; 8.3.3 Selecting practice according to student need ; 8.4 What are the implications for classroom practice in the teaching of spoken English? ; 8.4.1 Talking with students about spoken English ; 8.4.2 Making accuracy-based practice meaningful ; 8.4.3 Designing and evaluating fluency-based activities ; 8.4.4 Providing a range and balance of activities in a course ; 8.4.5 Teaching the pronunciation component of a course ; 8.4.6 Treating error in the classroom ; 8.4.7 Managing classroom interaction ; 8.5 Conclusion ; Discussion topics and projects ; Further reading ; 9. Writing ; 9.1 Introduction: a contemporary writing classroom ; 9.2 What do we know about the process of writing? ; 9.2.1 What strategies do skilled writers use as they compose? ; 9.2.2 What activities characterize the writing process? ; 9.3 What are the implications of a process approach? ; 9.3.1 Helping students to generate ideas ; 9.3.2 Providing practice in planning ; 9.3.3 Contextualizing tasks to develop a sense of audience ; 9.3.4 Encouraging students in revision strategies ; 9.3.5 Supporting students with technology ; 9.3.6 Issues in introducing a process approach ; 9.4 How can we analyse and describe the structure of written texts? ; 9.5 What are the implications of a text-based approach to writing? ; 9.5.1 Helping students to identify their writing needs ; 9.5.2 Building awareness of discourse organization ; 9.5.3 Helping students to develop crafting skills ; 9.5.4 Enabling students to appreciate the criteria for an effective text ; 9.6 Conclusion ; Discussion topics and projects ; Further reading ; PART FOUR: PLANNING AND ASSESSING LEARNING ; 10. Course design ; 10.1 Introduction: roles for the teacher in course design ; 10.2 What are the steps in course design? ; 10.2.1 Considering the students in their context of learning ; 10.2.2 Establishing goals and objectives ; 10.2.3 Planning the syllabus ; 10.2.4 Designing a course unit ; 10.2.5 What procedures can be helpful in evaluating courses? ; 10.3 What choices do teachers need to make in course design? ; 10.3.1 Choosing a textbook ; 10.3.2 Taking a process approach ; 10.3.3 Using projects in ELT ; 10.3.4 Negotiating with learners ; 10.4 Conclusion ; Discussion topics and projects ; Further reading ; 11. Classroom assessment by Pauline Rea-Dickins ; 11.1 Introduction: assessment and testing ; 11.2 What is testing? ; 11.2.1 The structuralist influence ; 11.2.2 The communicative influence ; 11.3 What is the role of classroom assessment? ; 11.3.1 What purposes should classroom assessment have? ; 11.3.2 What kind of feedback is useful? ; 11.3.3 What assessment procedures are available? ; 11.4 What characterizes good assessment practice? ; 11.4.1 Are affective considerations relevant to assessment? ; 11.4.2 How can good assessment practice be framed? ; 11.5 Conclusion ; Discussion topics and projects ; Further reading ; Appendix: Notes on Introductory tasks ; Glossary ; Bibliography ; Index Top page

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